Frequently Asked Questions

What is Corruption?

There is no specific and agreed upon definition for the concept of corruption. However, Transparency International has defined it as "exploitation of power to get private gains and benefits", and the World Bank also defines corruption as "abuse of public office for private gain"

The United Nations has defined corruption as "misuse of public authority for private benefit”. Nevertheless, The United Nations Convention against Corruption of 2003 did not address the definition of corruption, but it did establish specific acts of corruption as offences.

In conclusion, corruption may be defined as "abuse of power for personal gain".

The Integrity and Anti- Corruption Law No. (13) Of 2016, defines in article 16 (a) acts which are considered corruption for the purposes of the law, as follows:
1. Offences committed in breaching of job duties and offences committed in breaching of public trust, as stipulated in the Penal Code.
2. Economic crimes, within the meaning ascribed to it in the Economic Crimes Law. 3. Illicit Enrichment.
4. Non-announcement or non- disclosure of investments, properties, or benefits, that may lead to a conflict of interest, if this have been provided for in the laws and regulations, and which would directly or indirectly benefit the person who refrain from declaring them.
5. Any act or omission that leads to waste of public funds, or funds of public shareholding companies or non-profit companies or associations.
6. Abuse of power, in violation of the provisions of the law.
7. Public employees’ acceptance to acts of nepotism and favoritism, which revokes a right or validates what is void.
8. Use of information available by virtue of public function, to achieve personal benefits.
9. Corruption offenses as stated in the international conventions ratified by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

What are the Mandates of the Integrity and Anti-Corruption Commission?

The Commission works on three main pillars:

The first pillar is to strengthen national integrity, by reinforcing the values and codes of conducts, and ensuring compliance of the public and private sector as well as the civil society organizations, with the implementation of these values and codes of conduct.

The second pillar is to compact corruption by carrying out all required legal and administrative measures, including, investigations; collecting evidence and information; and prosecute anyone who commits any acts of corruption.

In this context, the Commission uses all tools that effectively contribute to fighting, curbing corruption, as well as conducting the necessary proactive measures to prevent its occurrence.

The third pillar is to deal with the administrative grievances, where the Commission verifies the validity of grievances received against public administration decisions, procedures, practices, or acts of refraining from any of them, and take the appropriate action on them, either by addressing the issue with the public administration complained against, or referring the grievance to the General Prosecutor if the issue deals with criminal suspicion, or to refer the matter to the Council of Ministers to take the decision he deems appropriate in the event of a dispute between the Commission and the Public Administration, or in situations where the Public Administration failed to respond within the period prescribed by law.

In this regard, it should be noted that the scope of work of the Commission includes: All public sector entities, considering their funds as public funds and their employees as public servants.
The private sector represented by public shareholding companies according to the provisions of Article (3) of the Economic Crimes Law No. 11 of 1993 and its amendments.
Banks according to the provisions of Article (3) of the same law.
Associations, parties, clubs, unions and federations according to the text above.

have acts of favoritism and nepotism been established as offences?

The answer is yes, when considering the following:

The principal criminal legal rule consists of two parts. The first part is the prohibited acts that are specified in legislations, which prohibit individuals from committing a particular behavior. The second part is the punishment, which is represented by the legal consequences imposed on those who violate the provisions of the legislation.

First, the prohibited acts: Article 16 (a) of the Integrity and Anti-Corruption Act identified acts that are considered as corrupt acts for the purposes of this law, and article (7) of this article provided for the following:

“Public employees’ acceptance to acts of nepotism and favoritism, which revokes a right or validates what is void”.

Second, the punishment, article 23 (a) of the law stipulates that the punishment shall be Without prejudice to any aggravated penalty stipulated in any other legislation, any person who commits any of the acts and conducts stipulated in Article (16) of this Law shall be subject to the punishment of imprisonment for a period not less than four months or a fine not less than five hundred Dinars and not exceeding five thousand Dinars or both penalties. In case of repetition, the penalty shall be increased by half.

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